These are by no means the identical and actually serve very totally different functions.
Whereas it’s true that in sure conditions, a so-called “straight” translation will not be applicable (akin to in promoting, for instance), it’s not true that every one good translations are in truth diversifications. In actuality, a great translation is NOT an adaptation. A very good translation should stay trustworthy to the complete context of the supply textual content by way of which means in addition to model, look, register and message. The phrases used to convey it are as essential because the message, and whereas after all one should make allowances for what the reader will or won’t perceive within the goal language, the translator actually can’t be permitted to take “liberties” with the textual content. Whether it is focused to a specific viewers and is written in a specific register within the supply language, it have to be focused to the corresponding viewers and written within the corresponding register of the goal language.
An adaptation, alternatively, takes the concepts of the supply textual content and re-writes them in a totally new means. The supply textual content could also be altered considerably to attraction extra to a brand new viewers (i.e.: totally different advertising and marketing sector, class or age group for instance) or it might be positioned in a special setting. Diversifications are extra frequent in literary, poetic or promoting media, the place you’ll be able to select to forgo both media (kind) or literal which means in favour of conveying a specific message or emotion, if one or the opposite is taken into account extra essential to the person scenario.
Earlier than deciding how a lot adaptation is critical, the translator has to think about the aim of the doc by way of its use and viewers. For instance, a letter translated to be used in courtroom should say precisely what is alleged, with no modifications made to the message or the medium. The identical letter, whether it is to be despatched to a possible consumer or political ally, for instance, could have to be tailored considerably, because the format of a letter in French is usually totally different from the format of a letter in English (totally different greetings, totally different means of signing, totally different means of writing the deal with) and paragraphs could even be rearranged to put deal with the identical notions however in a fashion or order that’s extra interesting or persuasive within the tradition of the reader, in order to make a sale or an ally.
The identical type of determination may be made on whether or not to translate or to adapt a chunk of literature. For instance, “Romeo et Juliette” is a translation meant to introduce Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet” as written, however to a French viewers, whereas “West Aspect Story” is an adaptation that creates a brand new model of the identical story, however with a twist that’s meant to attraction to a 20th century American musical-loving viewers, totally different from its 16th century English theatre-going counterpart. Each, nonetheless, are equally good however serve totally different functions.
Most “translated” poetry can also be the results of adaptation and never translation, as a result of it’s almost inconceivable to convey the identical feelings to readers of one other tradition whereas retaining each the identical kind and the identical phrases because the supply poem. Poetry, like promoting, may be very private and extremely culture-oriented; metaphors change from tradition to tradition, as do stylistic preferences, which is what poetry is usually all about. This doesn’t imply that poetic translations are by no means achieved, however they’re extraordinarily uncommon.
A associated notion is that of localization. That is the place this idea will get difficult, as a result of whereas localization usually entails translation, it belongs to a really particular trendy actuality. Localization is the method used to regulate a services or products (normally software program and web sites however it may additionally embrace merchandise that include loads of manuals and accent packages) to a specific language, tradition, and desired native “look-and-feel.” In localizing a product, along with idiomatic language translation, such particulars as time zones, currencies, nationwide holidays, native coloration sensitivities, services or products names, gender roles and geographic examples should all be thought of. A efficiently localized service or product is one which seems to have been developed throughout the native tradition. (However do not forget that the identical can usually be stated for a translation or an adaptation, as properly.) Localized texts embrace texts that will should be produced a number of occasions in the identical language, however adjusted for dialectal and different cultural variations (carry versus elevator, metric versus imperial measurements, and many others.), or texts that particularly goal one space the place that language is spoken (e.g. U.S. versus U.Okay., Quebec versus France). This isn’t, nonetheless, an adaptation, as a result of the identical content material and message are typically nonetheless expressed in the identical means, and such merchandise are sometimes designed to be simply localized with no need to change the format, model or imagery.
In the meantime, it’s not solely translations of scientific and authorized texts that require faithfulness to the textual content – sometimes called “straight” translations (word that this doesn’t imply “word-for-word”). Newspaper articles should retain all the identical info and be addressed to a corresponding viewers within the goal language group. Authorities paperwork, company literature, public data booklets, journey guides, textbooks and lots of different kinds of texts should retain the identical content material, similar register, similar model and similar format when translated even whereas respecting the construction, grammar and cultural baggage of the goal language. In any other case, you not have a translation however have moved into the world of adaptation.
In short, a real translation have to be written in a fashion that’s pure and applicable to the goal language, however could not diverge from the essence of the supply textual content; nothing could also be added, deleted or in another means altered from the supply. A real adaptation is a re-invention of the message to swimsuit a brand new viewers, whether or not that be a brand new language or totally different age or cultural group, trendy vs. earlier period, and many others.